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The domestication of cattle in Africa preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures.
It is speculated that by 6000 BC, cattle were domesticated in North Africa.
Around 3500 BC, due to a tilt in the earth's orbit, the Sahara experienced a period of rapid desertification.
The population trekked out of the Sahara region towards the Nile Valley below the Second Cataract where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements.
Most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land (e.g., in Celtica from Celtae, as used by Julius Caesar).
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages.